Syllabus for Limnology



  • 15 credits
  • Course code: 1BG227
  • Education cycle: First cycle
  • Main field(s) of study and in-depth level: Biology G2F
  • Grading system: Fail (U), Pass (3), Pass with credit (4), Pass with distinction (5)
  • Established: 2014-03-13
  • Established by:
  • Revised: 2018-08-30
  • Revised by: The Faculty Board of Science and Technology
  • Applies from: week 30, 2019
  • Entry requirements: One of the following is required: (1) 80 credits in biology equivalent to the basic course in biology within the Bachelor Programme in Biology/Molecular Biology, or (2) 60 credits in chemistry and at least 15 credits in biology, or (3) 30 credits in earth science and at least 15 credits in biology, and in all three cases Floristics and Faunistics, 7.5 credits.
  • Responsible department: Biology Education Centre

Learning outcomes

The general aim of the course is to give students knowledge of relevance for their future career in limnology, in research or with an applied focus. On completion of the course, the student should be able to:

  • analyse and evaluate abiotic and biotic conditions in aquatic systems
  • account for structure and dynamics in biogeochemical cycles and organism communities
  • carry out basic sampling and analyses in freshwater field/laboratory systems
  • plan and carry out experiment/field studies
  • present and evaluate experiment/field studies both orally and in writing.


The course communicates an ecosystem perspective on inland water, which comprises both physical, chemical and biological parts. Various types of inland water will be studied such as nutritious flatland lakes and nutrient-poor forest lakes.
Lake morphometry. The optical and thermal properties of water, dissolved gases, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved salts and organic substances. Sampling theory is also included, as well palaeolimnology and an orientation in aquatic environmental problems such as eutrophication and acidification.
Limnetic ecosystems and communities including phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic fauna and fish and bacteria will be included. Common species and characteristic species for different lake types are discussed. Seasonal variation and its steering factors, as well as growth and nutrient demands in different organism groups are also included in this part of the limnology course. Furthermore, microbial limnology and the biogeochemical cycle of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as aerobic and anaerobic microbial processes in water and sediment are included.

Field course. Practical training in sampling and analyses, collaborative projects in groups, and in oral and written presentation.


The teaching is conducted as lectures, seminars, computer exercises, field course and laboratory sessions. Participation in seminars, field course and laboratory sessions are compulsory.


Modules: Species taxonomy 5 credits; Field course 4 credits; Theory 6 credits. The module species taxonomy is examined through written and oral tests. The field course requires active participation and oral and written presentations. The theory part requires active participation in seminars and laboratory sessions. 
If there are special reasons for doing so, an examiner may make an exception from the method of assessment indicated and allow a student to be assessed by another method. An example of special reasons might be a certificate regarding special pedagogical support from the disability coordinator of the university.

Other directives

Can not at the same time be included with 1BG380 Limnology I D, 1BG505 Limnology D, 1BG202 Limnology I or 1BG041 Limnology L.

Reading list

Reading list

Applies from: week 30, 2019

  • Likens, Gene E. Encyclopedia of Inland Waters

    Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press, Press,c 2009

    Find in the library