describe how the climate can vary on a time scale from 10 year up to hundreds of million years (paleoclimatology)
use basic knowledge in meteorology to understand climate
describe the methods used in paleoclimatology, climate indicators, dating methods and climate factors
describe the difference between a climate fluctuation and climate change
describe methods used to investigate / predict future climate
Climatic variations: ice cores, sediment samples, tree ring analysis, pollen analysis, propagation of plants and animals, oxygen isotope analysis, carbon-14 method, sea ice extent, glaciers, water level in the sewage from some lakes. Climatic factors: the Earth's orbital elements, continental drift, ocean currents, volcanic activity, mountain fold, greenhouse gases, solar activity, clouds, global dimming (dust). Climate modelling, the IPCC, negative and positive feedback mechanisms.