This course prepares for practical use of, and gives theoretical fundamental knowledge about modern synchrotron radiation sources and free-electron lasers. The properties of the x-ray radiation such as angular and energy distribution, brilliance, polarisation, time structure and coherence from so-called insertion devices in storage rings; undulators and wigglers and their fundamental properties are covered. Optical constants in absorption, reflection and transmission are estimated and calculated in connection with x-ray optical components (gratings and mirrors) in monochromators and beamlines. The basic physics of free-electron lasers are treated in connection with different applications of femto-second short x-ray pulses. Experimental methods for detecting photons and electrons as response to the x-ray radiation are discussed in connection to different research areas.
After the course, the participant should be able to make estimates and simple calculations of the x-ray properties from insertion devices for synchrotron radiation experiments. The participant should be able to describe different experimental methods and measurement techniques for electronic structure measurements and crystallography. To check the understanding, a number of hand-in problems during the lectures are given and laboratory work at MAX-lab in Lund is made.
Radiation from accelerated electrons at relativistic energies: energy spectra, power distribution, angular dependence.
The construction of a synchrotron storage ring.
The properties of x-rays: emittance and brilliance, radiated power, time structure, polarisation. Undulators and wigglers. Optics for VUV and x-rays. Monochromators.
The function of free-electron lasers and their significance.
Applications of synchrotron radiation in physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and nanoscience.
Lectures. Practical work: Laboratory day and guest lectures at MAX-lab in Lund; Undulator spectrum and the polarisation dependence of synchrotron radiation.
Written report and oral presentation of individual projects.