The course treats concepts and working methods that are used within modern physics, in particular the physics of electrons in materials. On completion of the course the student shall be able to:
use with the language of basic quantum mechanics and formalism.
carry out calculations of atoms and molecules and describe quantum phenomenon within the electron physics from quantum mechanical relations.
carry out spectroscopic studies of different subjects and interpret the results in quantized units.
report on applications of quantum physics in nature, technical developments and society.
orally present the results of experimental investigations and discuss their quantum mechanical interpretation.
The basic phenomena of the quantum physics and experimental background, particles and atomic models. Black-body radiation, line spectra, the photon, photoelectric effect, Compton-dispersion. Bohr's atomic model.
One-dimensional systems: The eigenvalue problem, stationary states, expectation values, operators. Particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, transmission and reflection. Heisenberg's uncertainty relations.
Three-dimensional systems. Orbital angular momentum and central motion.
One-electron atoms: The Schrödinger equation, energy eigenvalues wave functions, energy level diagram. Optical spectroscopy on the hydrogen atom.
Basic perturbation theory, variational theory.
Many-electron atoms: Spin. Addition of angular moments. Identical particles. The Pauli exclusion principle, The central field approximation. Zeeman effect, electron configurations, periodic system, spin-orbit coupling, terms, fine structure levels. Spectroscopies.
Fermions and bosons.
Diatomic molecules: Binding, molecular potentials, electron configurations. Energy level diagrams. Vibrational and rotational motions and transitions.
Applications of quantum physics in nature, technical developments and society, for example the quantum mechanical origin of the earth's temperature, tunnel diodes and atomic magnetism.
Lectures, lesson, experimental and computer-based laboratory sessions. Guest lecture. Teaching may sometimes be given in English.
Written examination at the end of the course (9 credits) and mid-course examination. Passing the mid-course examination gives bonus points that can be used on the final exam and the regular re-exams. To pass the course, a passed laboratory course is also required with an oral presentation in English (1 credit).