Definitions

Data and related metadata: attestations

Language
The project collects data from East Norse texts. Here we use East Norse to mean the two languages Old Swedish (incl. Old Gutnish) and Old Danish before 1530. For more information see 'Material' under 'Project'.

Lemma form
The lemma form is a normalised form of the spatial reference (place name or non-name) that is constructed on the basis of the collected variant forms and original forms, as well as attestations of the word found in sources not covered by the project. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: attestations'.

Level of certainty
Each attestation of a spatial reference (place name or non-name) is provided with a level of certainty. The level of certainty is based on how difficult the attestation is to read in the source and/or the certainty of the spatial reference identification. The level of certainty comprises three levels: commonly attested and known, educated guess, and unknown. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: attestations'.

Original form
The original form is an attestation of a spatial reference (place name or non-name) as it appears in the text of the source and, when relevant, transcribed at the diplomatic level with abbreviations expanded in italics. The textual context provided varies in length. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: attestations'.

Preposition
Prepositions are a class of words, usually combined with nouns and pronouns, that express spatial and temporal relations. Spatial references, especially place names, are in many cases attested as a part of a prepositional phrase, e.g. Old Swedish i rom, where i 'in' is an Old Swedish preposition and rom an Old Swedish original form of the place name Rome. Data concerning prepositions are gathered separately for Old Swedish and Old Danish attestations. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: attestations'.

Standard form
The standard form comprises the standard form of the non-name or the most commonly used form of the place name in the English language. In certain cases Old Swedish and/or Old Danish forms are used as standard forms. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Variant form
The variant form is a slightly normalised form of the spatial reference (place name or non-name) based on one or more similar original forms that occur in one or more sources of one or more works. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: attestations'.

Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data

Fictional
Spatial references (place names and non-names) are sorted into two groups regarding contextual identification: real or fictional. Place names and non-names are sorted under fictional when they are impossible to identify or if the actual context of the attestation contradicts the assumed identification of the spatial reference. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Foreign
Foreign is defined as referring to localities and other spatial phenomena beyond the current political borders of Sweden and Denmark. Foreign place names and non-names constitute the project's data. For more information see 'Theoretical considerations' under 'Project'.

Geodata link
Each identifiable place name is provided with a stable link to spatial data (including latitude and longitude), a geodata link. Spatial data for collected spatial references are taken from external gazetteers such as Geonames, iDAI or GeoHack. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Located in
Located in shows the closest geographical and/or administrative entity in the hierarchical spatial data structure. Geographical entities below the level of a country (cities, regions, rivers, hills, etc.) are tagged to a relevant country or countries; countries are tagged to a larger region or regions (Eastern Europe, Middle East, Northern Africa, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, and Western Europe); and larger regions are tagged to a continent or continents (Africa, Asia, Europe). For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Non-name
Non-name is a collective term for spatial references that are not covered by the category place names. The category is heterogenous and comprises adjectives, adverbs, coin designations, inhabitant designations, language designations, noun bynames, and origin designations. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Place name
Place names are names of topographical, physical, and cultural features and they constitute the largest group of the project's spatial referents. Place names in the East Norse corpus are identified contextually by means of close reading. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Real
Spatial references (place names and non-names) are sorted into two groups with regard to contextual identification; real or fictional. Place names and non-names are sorted under real by default if they do not match the requirements for fictional. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Show as
If a spatial reference lacks coordinates for some reason (e.g. because it is a fictional or an unidentified biblical spatial reference) it can still be visualised via the Show as field. Show as includes information on the geographical entity that the spatial reference in question is assumed to be a part of. It thus reflects geographical contextualisation of the spatial reference in the East Norse corpus. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Standard form
The standard form comprises the standard form of the non-name or the most commonly used form of the place name in the English language. In certain cases Old Swedish and/or Old Danish forms are used as standard forms. For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Type of locality
Each collected place name is assigned a type of locality depending on what locality the name refers to. Types of locality correlate with types of place name, so that each type of locality corresponds to one type of place name.

  • archbishopric corresponts to the type of place name choronym.
  • bridge corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • canal corresponds to the type of place name hydronym.
  • castle corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • cave corresponds to the type of place name name of another natural feature.
  • cemetery corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • church corresponds to the type of place name sacral name.
  • city corresponds to the type of place name settlement name.
  • continent corresponds to the type of place name choronym.
  • country corresponds to the type of place name choronym.
  • desert corresponds to the type of place name name of another natural feature.
  • field corresponds to the type of place name field name.
  • fjord corresponds to the type of place name hydronym.
  • forest corresponds to the type of place name name of another natural feature.
  • fortification corresponds to the type of place name name of a man-made feature.
  • garden corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • gate corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • grave corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • gulf corresponds to the type of place name hydronym.
  • harbour corresponds to the type of place name name of another natural feature.
  • hill corresponds to the type of place name oronym.
  • house corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • island corresponds to the type of place name name of another natural feature.
  • lake corresponds to the type of place name hydronym.
  • larger region corresponds to the type of place name choronym.
  • market corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • marsh corresponds to the type of place name name of another natural feature.
  • monastery corresponds to the type of place name sacral name.
  • mosque corresponds to the type of place name sacral name.
  • mountain corresponds to the type of place name oronym.
  • other place of worship corresponds to the type of place name sacral name.
  • other site of Jewish worship corresponds to the type of place name sacral name.
  • other site of Muslim worship corresponds to the type of place name sacral name.
  • pass corresponds to the type of place name hodonym.
  • peninsula corresponds to the type of place name name of another natural feature.
  • region corresponds to the type of place name choronym.
  • river corresponds to the type of place name hydronym.
  • road corresponds to the type of place name hodonym.
  • sea corresponds to the type of place name hydronym.
  • spring corresponds to the type of place name hydronym.
  • strait corresponds to the type of place name hydronym.
  • street corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • synagogue corresponds to the type of place name sacral name.
  • tower corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • urban area corresponds to the type of place name urban name.
  • valley corresponds to the type of place name name of another natural feature.
  • village corresponds to the type of place name settlement name.
  • volcano corresponds to the type of place name oronym.
  • well corresponds to the type of place name hydronym.

For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Type of non-name
Each collected spatial reference belonging to the non-name category is assigned a type of non-name depending on the nature of the spatial reference.

  • adjective: adjectival forms that refer to foreign places (typically, nations and cities of origin).
  • adverb: adverbs denoting foreign places.
  • coin designation: nouns used to designate coins of a particular geographical provenance.
  • inhabitant designation: nouns used to designate the inhabitants of a city, region, or country.
  • language designation: nouns used to designate languages.
  • noun byname: a noun spatial reference that constitutes a byname or is a part of a byname.
  • origin designation: nouns based on a place name that describe the geographical origin of the referent.

For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Type of place name
Each collected place name is assigned a type of place name depending on what locality the name refers to. In other words, types of place name correlate with types of localities, so that each type of place name corresponds to one or more types of locality.

  • choronym: the name of any significant area, region, or province (natural, historical, administrative). Choronyms comprise the names of archbishoprics, continents, countries, larger regions, and regions in the corpus.
  • field name: the name of a field (meadows, grazing lands, etc.). Field names comprise the names of fields in the corpus.
  • hodonym: the name of a transportation route. Hodonyms comprise the names of roads and passes in the corpus.
  • hydronym: the name of a body of water. Hydronyms comprise the names of canals, fjords, gulfs, lakes, rivers, seas, springs, straits, and wells in the corpus.
  • name of a man-made feature comprises the names of fortifications in the corpus.
  • name of another natural feature comprises the names of caves, deserts, forests, harbours, marshes, islands, peninsulas, and valleys in the corpus.
  • oronym: the name of an elevated topographical feature. Oronyms comprise the names of hills, mountains, and volcanoes in the corpus. 
  • sacral name: the name of a place of worship (ekklesionym). Sacral names comprise the names of churches, monasteries, mosques and other site of Muslim worship, synagogues and other site of Jewish worship, as well as other places of worship in the corpus.
  • settlement name: the name of any settlement (oikonym). Settlement names comprise the names of cities and villages in the corpus.
  • urban name: name of a feature in an urban area (urbanonym). Urban names comprise the names of bridges, castles, cemeteries, gardens, gates, graves, houses, markets, streets, towers, and urban areas in the corpus.

For more information see 'Data and related metadata: spatial references and spatial data'.

Search

Deep search
A deep search is a search carried out in most of the fields in the database. For this reason, the search string may not be readily visible in the data table containing the search results. The cells of the data table containing the search string entered into the search field by the user are still highlighted to indicate in which cell the search string appears. However, the results can contain rows without such highlighting because the field containing the search string is not visible. For more information see 'Search and filters'.

Light search
A light search is a search only carried out in the fields/columns visible in the data table containing search results, i.e. Original form, Variant form, Lemma form, Preposition, Standard form, Work, Source, and Language. The cells of the data table containing the search string entered into the search field by the user are highlighted to indicate in which cell the search string appears. For more information see 'Search and filters'.

Source and related metadata

Early print
An early print is a printed book from the late fifteenth century or early sixteenth century. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Dating
Each source is dated according to information in relevant secondary literature. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Dating, after year
The filters 'Dating, after year' and 'Dating, before year' specify the available limits for the source’s dating that can be set by the user. 'Dating, after year' stands for terminus post quem for available sources, i.e. the earliest time that the sources may have been written, carved, or published. For more information see 'Source and related metadata' and 'Search and filters'.

Dating, before year
The filters 'Dating, after year' and 'Dating, before year' specify the available limits for the source’s dating that can be set by the user. 'Dating, before year' stands for terminus ante quem for available sources, i.e. the latest time that the sources may have been written, carved, or published. For more information see 'Source and related metadata' and 'Search and filters'.

Folio
A folio is a leaf of a manuscript. Manuscripts and early prints can be foliated, i.e. provided with folio numbers. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Manuscript
A manuscript is a handwritten book or codex. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Page
A page is a single side of a leaf. Early prints and some of the manuscript sources are paginated, i.e. provided with page numbers. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Place of origin
The place of origin provides information on where a manuscript was or is thought to have been written. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Place of publication
The place of publication provides information on where an early print was or is thought to have been published. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Printer
A printer is a person credited with printing an early print. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Repository
A repository is an institution that stores historically valuable sources such as manuscripts. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Runic inscription
A runic inscription is an inscription made in a runic alphabet. Only medieval runic inscriptions are included among the sources. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Source
Source is a manuscript, early print, or runic inscription from which the data has been excerpted. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Source type
The Norse World data comes from three different source types: manuscripts, early prints, and runic inscription. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Type of support
The type of support specifies a writing support material, i.e. the material that a manuscript is written on. Manuscripts can be written on either membrane (parchment or vellum), paper, or a combination of membrane and paper. For more information see 'Source and related metadata'.

Work and related metadata

Dating of composition
The dating of composition provides information on the dating of a text according to relevant secondary literature. For more information see 'Work and related metadata'.

Genre
The texts from which the data has been excerpted are categorised into the following genres: chronicles and histories, devotional works, encyclopaedic and didactic works, miscellaneous, poems, preaching and mass, romances, travel tales, and visions and revelations. For more information see 'Work and related metadata'.

Language
The project collects data from texts written in East Norse. Here East Norse refers to the two languages Old Swedish (incl. Old Gutnish) and Old Danish before 1530. For more information see 'Material' under 'Project'.

Work
A work is a text preserved in one or more sources that the data are collected from. For more information see 'Work and related metadata'.