# Sophie Grape

Senior Lecturer/Associate Professor at Department of Physics and Astronomy; Applied Nuclear Physics

- Telephone:
- +46 18 471 58 42, +46 70 167 91 78
- E-mail:
- sophie.grape@physics.uu.se
- Visiting address:
- Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1
- Postal address:
- Box 516

751 20 UPPSALA

More information is available to staff who log in.

## Short presentation

My research explores ways of ensuring non-diversion of nuclear material from the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy systems. Nuclear safeguards are measures and tools that deter from misuse of civil nuclear materials and facilities. The development of non-destructive assay instruments and analysis techniques for verification of spent nuclear fuel, which I am contributing to, is an important part of the safeguards system.

**Academic merits**: PhD, Docent in physics

## Keywords

- icke-spridning
- kärnteknik
- kärnämneskontroll
- non-proliferation
- nuclear fuel
- nuclear safeguards

## Publications

### Selection of publications

- Irradiated fuel salt data library for a molten salt reactor produced with Serpent2 and SOURCES 4C codes (2024)
- Data library of irradiated fuel salt and off-gas tank composition for a molten salt reactor concept produced with Serpent2 and SOURCES 4C codes (2024)
- Simulation of Neutron Leakage Variations at Fuel Substitution in a Small Modular Reactor and Implications for Unattended Safeguards Monitoring (2024)
- Predicting Decay Heat By Combining Fuel Parameters With Gamma And Neutron Data Using Machine Learning (2024)
- Plutonium Production under Uranium Constraint (2023)
- Simulating submarine reactor fuel in light of the AUKUS deal (2023)
- Assessments of radiation emission from molten salt reactor spent fuel: Implications for future nuclear safeguards verification (2023)
- Statistical analysis of fuel cycle data from Swedish Pressurized Water Reactors and the impact of simplifying assumptions on simulated nuclide inventories (2023)
- Possibilities for monitoring the composition of an iPWR core using ex-core neutron detectors (2023)
- Effects of modelling assumptions on Cherenkov light intensity predictions (2022)
- State-of-the-Art Report (2022)
- Non-proliferation and safeguards activities within the Alva Myrdal Centre for nuclear disarmament (2022)
- Research on safeguarding molten salt reactor systems at Uppsala University (2022)
- Prediction of fuel salt composition using fuel data libraries developed for the Molten Salt Demonstration Reactor (2022)
- Simulation study of gamma-ray spectroscopy on MYRRHA spent fuel located in lead–bismuth eutectic (2022)
- Neptunium: time for nuclear safeguards? (2022)
- Rossi-Alpha Distribution Analysis of DDSI Data For Spent Nuclear Fuel Investigation (2022)
- Investigating the sensitivity to irradiation history when predicting fuel parameters using random forest regression (2021)
- Sensitivity analysis of the Rossi-Alpha Distribution and the early die-away time τ from the DDSI instrument due to modelling assumptions (2021)
- Analysis of radiation emission from MYRRHA spent fuel and implications for non-destructive safeguards verification (2021)
- Partial defect detection using the DCVD and a segmented Region-Of-Interest (2020)
- Development of a modeling approach to estimate radiation from a spent fuel rod quiver (2020)
- R&D related to final disposal at Uppsala University (2020)
- Determination of spent nuclear fuel parameters using modelled signatures from non-destructive assay and Random Forest regression (2020)
- Results of the Swedish spent fuel measurement field trials with the Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation Instrument (2020)
- Verifying PWR assemblies with rod cluster control assembly inserts using a DCVD (2019)
- On the inclusion of light transport in prediction tools for Cherenkov light intensity assessment of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies (2019)
- Parametrization of the differential die-away self-interrogation early die-away time for PWR spent fuel assemblies (2019)
- Investigating the gamma and neutron radiation around quivers for verification purposes (2019)
- Machine learning in nuclear safeguards (2019)
- Improved Cherenkov Light Prediction Model for Enhanced DCVD Performance (2018)
- Experimental evaluation of models for predicting Cherenkov light intensities from short-cooled nuclear fuel assemblies (2018)
- Experimental study of background subtraction in Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device measurements (2018)
- Nuclear safeguards verification of modelled partial defect PWR fuel using multivariate analysis (2018)
- Application of Multivariate Analysis to Gamma and Neutron Signatures from Spent Nuclear Fuel (2018)
- MCNP simulations of prototype DDSI detector (2018)
- Nuclear safeguards verification of modelled BWR fuel using a multivariate analysis approach (2018)
- Partial defect identification in PWR spent fuel using Passive Gamma Spectroscopy (2018)
- Geometry-based Variance Reduction in simulations of Passive Gamma Spectroscopy from Spent Nuclear Fuel (2018)
- Non-destructive assay sampling of nuclear fuel before encapsulation (2018)
- The education and training offer in nuclearsafeguards within the EURATOM Research andTraining project “ANNETTE” (2018)
- Discrimination of irradiated MOX fuel from UOX fuel by multivariate statistical analysis of simulated activities of gamma-emitting isotopes (2018)
- Estimating irradiated nuclear fuel characteristics by nonlinear multivariate regression of simulated gamma-ray emissions (2018)
- On Cherenkov light production by irradiated nuclear fuel rods (2017)
- Comparison of prediction models for Cherenkov light emissions from nuclear fuel assemblies (2017)
- Nuclear Spent Fuel Parameter Determination using Multivariate Analysis of Fission Product Gamma Spectra (2017)
- Outcomes of the JNT 1955 Phase I Viability Study of Gamma Emission Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification (2017)
- Outcomes of the JNT 1955 Phase I Viability Study of Gamma EmissionTomography for Spent Fuel Verification (2017)
- Applying image analysis techniques to tomographic images of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies (2016)
- Forskning inom teknisk kärnämneskontroll vid Uppsala universitet under 2014–2015 (2016)
- Design of a Prototype Differential Die-Away Instrument proposed for Swedish Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization (2016)
- A Viability Study of Gamma Emission Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification (2016)
- Improving the prediction model for Cherenkov light generation by irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage for enhanced partial-defect verification capability (2015)
- Image analysis methods for partial defect detection using tomographic images on nuclear fuel assemblies (2015)
- Basic facts and definitions related to measurement (2015)
- Gamma spectroscopy as a tool of non-destructive nuclear forensic analysis (2015)
- Students’ Approaches to Learning from Other Students’ Oral Presentations (2015)
- Building a Strategy for ESARDA - Education, Training and Knowledge Management (2015)
- Applicability of a set of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for quantitative SPECT on irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies (2015)
- A platform for feed-forward and follow-up of students' progression in oral presentation within a study programme (2015)
- Development of Differential Die-Away Instrument for Characterization of Swedish Spent Nuclear Fuel (2015)
- Simulation of differential die-away instrument's response to asymmetrically burned spent nuclear fuel (2015)
- Passive Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification: Analysis Framework and Instrument Design Study (2015)
- Image analysis as a tool for improved use of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device for inspection of irradiated PWR fuel assemblies. (2014)
- Recent modelling studies for analysing the partial-defect detection capability of the Digital Cherenkov Vieweing Device (2014)
- New perspectives on nuclear power - Generation IV nuclear energy systems to strengthen nuclear non-proliferation and support nuclear disarmament (2014)
- Partial Defect Evaluation Methodology for Nuclear Safeguards Inspections of Used Nuclear Fuel Using the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (2014)
- IPCC förordar kärnkraft för att minska utsläppen (2014)
- Gamma-ray Emission Tomography: Modelling and evaluation of partial-defect testing capabilities (2014)
- Experimental Comparison between High Purity Germanium and Scintillator Detectors for Determining Burnup, Cooling Time and Decay Heat of Used Nuclear Fuel (2014)
- Gamma Transport Calculations for Gamma Emission Tomography on Nuclear Fuel within the UGET Project (2014)
- Characterization of Spent Nuclear Fuel with a Differential Die-Away Instrument (2014)
- Experimental and Analytical Plans for the Non-destructive Assay System of the Swedish Encapsulation and Repository Facilities (2014)
- Students’ approaches to learning from other students’ oral presentations (2013)
- Recent modelling studies for analysing the partial-defect detection capability of theDigital Cherenkov Viewing Device (2013)
- Verifying nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storages on a partial defect level (2013)
- Improving the proliferation resistance of generation IV fast reactor fuel cycles using blankets manufactured from spent nuclear fuel. (2013)
- Improved proliferation resistance of fast reactor blankets manufactured from spent nuclear fuel (2013)
- A laboratory device for developing analysis tools and methods for gamma emission tomography of nuclear fuel (2013)
- Gamma emission tomography of nuclear fuel (2013)
- Update on the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Spent Fuel Project with Emphasis on Differential Die-Away Research (2013)
- Update on the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay Project (2013)
- Prototype Development and Field Trials under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Non-Destructive Assay Project (2013)
- Proliferation resistance assessments during the design phase of a fuel recycling facility as a means of reducing proliferation risks (2013)
- Assessment of proliferation resistances of aqueous reprocessing techniques using the TOPS methodology (2013)
- Investigation of Possible Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Techniques for the Future Swedish Encapsulation Facility (2012)
- The response of lead-tungstate scintillators (PWO) to photons with energies in the range 13 MeV-64 MeV (2012)
- Partial defect verification using the DCVD (2011)
- Report on the 8th ESARDA course on nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation (2011)
- Determination of Cerenkov light absorption by fuel pond water using a calibration light source (2011)
- Statistical grounds for determining the ability to detect partial defects using the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) (2010)
- PWO Crystal Measurements and Simulation Studies of Anti-Hyperon Polarisation for PANDA (2008)
- Hadron physics experiments in antiproton proton reactions with the planned PANDA detector (2007)
- Test and Developments of Crystals for a High-Resolution Electromagnetic Calorimeter for PANDA (2004)

### Recent publications

- Education and training at Uppsala University (2024)
- Exploring reasons behind the development of uranium and plutonium based nuclear weapons in states (2024)
- Exploring methods to reconstruct historic reactor operation (2024)
- Material attractiveness of irradiated fuel salts from the Seaborg Compact Molten Salt Reactor (2024)
- Irradiated fuel salt data library for a molten salt reactor produced with Serpent2 and SOURCES 4C codes (2024)

### All publications

#### Articles

- Material attractiveness of irradiated fuel salts from the Seaborg Compact Molten Salt Reactor (2024)
- Irradiated fuel salt data library for a molten salt reactor produced with Serpent2 and SOURCES 4C codes (2024)
- Data library of irradiated fuel salt and off-gas tank composition for a molten salt reactor concept produced with Serpent2 and SOURCES 4C codes (2024)
- Simulation of Neutron Leakage Variations at Fuel Substitution in a Small Modular Reactor and Implications for Unattended Safeguards Monitoring (2024)
- Plutonium Production under Uranium Constraint (2023)
- Simulating submarine reactor fuel in light of the AUKUS deal (2023)
- Statistical analysis of fuel cycle data from Swedish Pressurized Water Reactors and the impact of simplifying assumptions on simulated nuclide inventories (2023)
- Spent Nuclear Fuel passive gamma analysis and reproducibility (2023)
- Studies of the impact of beta contributions on Cherenkov light emission by spent nuclear fuel (2022)
- Simulation study of gamma-ray spectroscopy on MYRRHA spent fuel located in lead–bismuth eutectic (2022)
- Investigating the sensitivity to irradiation history when predicting fuel parameters using random forest regression (2021)
- Sensitivity analysis of the Rossi-Alpha Distribution and the early die-away time τ from the DDSI instrument due to modelling assumptions (2021)
- Analysis of radiation emission from MYRRHA spent fuel and implications for non-destructive safeguards verification (2021)
- Partial defect detection using the DCVD and a segmented Region-Of-Interest (2020)
- A methodology to identify partial defects in spent nuclear fuel using gamma spectroscopy data (2020)
- Pressurized water reactor spent nuclear fuel data library produced with the Serpent2 code (2020)
- Determination of spent nuclear fuel parameters using modelled signatures from non-destructive assay and Random Forest regression (2020)
- Time stamped list mode data from gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements on 47 nuclear fuel assemblies performed at Clab, Sweden, September 2016 through March 2019 (2020)
- Estimating gamma and neutron radiation fluxes around BWR quivers for nuclear safeguards verification purposes (2020)
- Results of the Swedish spent fuel measurement field trials with the Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation Instrument (2020)
- Verifying PWR assemblies with rod cluster control assembly inserts using a DCVD (2019)
- On the inclusion of light transport in prediction tools for Cherenkov light intensity assessment of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies (2019)
- feign (2019)
- Investigating the Cherenkov light production due to cross-talk in closely stored nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage (2018)
- Experimental evaluation of models for predicting Cherenkov light intensities from short-cooled nuclear fuel assemblies (2018)
- Experimental study of background subtraction in Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device measurements (2018)
- Non-destructive assay sampling of nuclear fuel before encapsulation (2018)
- Discrimination of irradiated MOX fuel from UOX fuel by multivariate statistical analysis of simulated activities of gamma-emitting isotopes (2018)
- Estimating irradiated nuclear fuel characteristics by nonlinear multivariate regression of simulated gamma-ray emissions (2018)
- On Cherenkov light production by irradiated nuclear fuel rods (2017)
- Comparison of prediction models for Cherenkov light emissions from nuclear fuel assemblies (2017)
- Nuclear Spent Fuel Parameter Determination using Multivariate Analysis of Fission Product Gamma Spectra (2017)
- Outcomes of the JNT 1955 Phase I Viability Study of Gamma Emission Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification (2017)
- Applying image analysis techniques to tomographic images of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies (2016)
- Design of a Prototype Differential Die-Away Instrument proposed for Swedish Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization (2016)
- Applicability of a set of tomographic reconstruction algorithms for quantitative SPECT on irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies (2015)
- A Qualitative Analysis of the Neutron Population in Fresh and Spent Fuel Assemblies during Simulated Interrogation using the Differential Die-Away Technique (2015)
- Simulation of differential die-away instrument's response to asymmetrically burned spent nuclear fuel (2015)
- Recent modelling studies for analysing the partial-defect detection capability of the Digital Cherenkov Vieweing Device (2014)
- New perspectives on nuclear power - Generation IV nuclear energy systems to strengthen nuclear non-proliferation and support nuclear disarmament (2014)
- Partial Defect Evaluation Methodology for Nuclear Safeguards Inspections of Used Nuclear Fuel Using the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (2014)
- IPCC förordar kärnkraft för att minska utsläppen (2014)
- Verifying nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storages on a partial defect level (2013)
- Assessment of proliferation resistances of aqueous reprocessing techniques using the TOPS methodology (2013)
- The response of lead-tungstate scintillators (PWO) to photons with energies in the range 13 MeV-64 MeV (2012)
- Application of machine learning to predict safeguards parameters for irradiated salts from a molten salt reactor concept
- Prediction of decay heat from PWR spent nuclear fuel using fuel parameters
- Prediction of decay using non-destructive assays

#### Books

#### Chapters

- Basic facts and definitions related to measurement (2015)
- Gamma spectroscopy as a tool of non-destructive nuclear forensic analysis (2015)

#### Conferences

- Education and training at Uppsala University (2024)
- Exploring reasons behind the development of uranium and plutonium based nuclear weapons in states (2024)
- Exploring methods to reconstruct historic reactor operation (2024)
- Predicting Decay Heat By Combining Fuel Parameters With Gamma And Neutron Data Using Machine Learning (2024)
- Assessment of a liquid organic scintillation detector for fast neutron measurements in the context of verification of nuclear weapon dismantlement (2024)
- Image analysis to support DCVD verification (2023)
- Applied Nuclear Physics in the Alva Myrdal Centre for Nuclear Disarmament: Non-Proliferation and Safeguards Activities (2023)
- Applied nuclear physics in the Alva Myrdal Centre for nuclear disarmament (2023)
- Experimental verification of simulated predictions from the DDSI instrument (2023)
- Retrieving information about the Ågesta reactor in Sweden (2023)
- Comparison of the physical and operational parameters of the CANDU reactor and the NRX reactor (2023)
- Assessments of radiation emission from molten salt reactor spent fuel: Implications for future nuclear safeguards verification (2023)
- Possibilities for monitoring the composition of an iPWR core using ex-core neutron detectors (2023)
- Decay heat predictions using gamma spectroscopy and neutron coincidence data (2023)
- Coincidence spectroscopy for increased sensitivity in radionuclide monitoring (2022)
- Effects of modelling assumptions on Cherenkov light intensity predictions (2022)
- State-of-the-Art Report by WG4: Technical nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards (2022)
- Non-proliferation and safeguards activities within the Alva Myrdal Centre for nuclear disarmament (2022)
- Studies of naval reactor core properties in light of recent AUKUS developments (2022)
- Development of a PhD course in verification of nuclear test explosions under AMC (2022)
- A technical view on Pakistan's nuclear weapons programme (2022)
- Research on safeguarding molten salt reactor systems at Uppsala University (2022)
- Prediction of fuel salt composition using fuel data libraries developed for the Molten Salt Demonstration Reactor (2022)
- Overview of initial work on spent-fuel verification at MYRRHA (2022)
- Neptunium: time for nuclear safeguards? (2022)
- Rossi-Alpha Distribution Analysis of DDSI Data For Spent Nuclear Fuel Investigation (2022)
- Combining DCVD measurements at different alignments for enhanced partial defect detection performance (2021)
- SUMMARY OF RECENT INVESTIGATIONS RELATED TO PREDICTIONS OF THE EARLY DIE-AWAY TIME τ FROM THE DDSI INSTRUMENT (2021)
- Comparison Of Different Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms To Predict PWR Spent Fuel Parameters (2021)
- Evaluating Peak Area Uncertainties in Connection to Passive Gamma Measurements of Spent Nuclear Fuel (2021)
- Development of a modeling approach to estimate radiation from a spent fuel rod quiver (2020)
- Parametrization of the differential die-away self-interrogation early die-away time for PWR spent fuel assemblies (2019)
- Investigating the gamma and neutron radiation around quivers for verification purposes (2019)
- Machine learning in nuclear safeguards (2019)
- Improved Cherenkov Light Prediction Model for Enhanced DCVD Performance (2018)
- Nuclear safeguards verification of modelled partial defect PWR fuel using multivariate analysis (2018)
- Application of Multivariate Analysis to Gamma and Neutron Signatures from Spent Nuclear Fuel (2018)
- MCNP simulations of prototype DDSI detector (2018)
- Nuclear safeguards verification of modelled BWR fuel using a multivariate analysis approach (2018)
- Partial defect identification in PWR spent fuel using Passive Gamma Spectroscopy (2018)
- Geometry-based Variance Reduction in simulations of Passive Gamma Spectroscopy from Spent Nuclear Fuel (2018)
- The education and training offer in nuclearsafeguards within the EURATOM Research andTraining project “ANNETTE” (2018)
- Outcomes of the JNT 1955 Phase I Viability Study of Gamma EmissionTomography for Spent Fuel Verification (2017)
- Improving the prediction model for Cherenkov light generation by irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage for enhanced partial-defect verification capability (2015)
- Image analysis methods for partial defect detection using tomographic images on nuclear fuel assemblies (2015)
- Students’ Approaches to Learning from Other Students’ Oral Presentations (2015)
- Building a Strategy for ESARDA - Education, Training and Knowledge Management (2015)
- A platform for feed-forward and follow-up of students' progression in oral presentation within a study programme (2015)
- Development of Differential Die-Away Instrument for Characterization of Swedish Spent Nuclear Fuel (2015)
- Passive Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification: Analysis Framework and Instrument Design Study (2015)
- Improved DCVD assessments of irradiated nuclear fuel using image analysis techniques (2014)
- Towards unattended partial-defect verification of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies using the DCVD (2014)
- Gamma-ray Emission Tomography: Modelling and evaluation of partial-defect testing capabilities (2014)
- Experimental Comparison between High Purity Germanium and Scintillator Detectors for Determining Burnup, Cooling Time and Decay Heat of Used Nuclear Fuel (2014)
- Gamma Transport Calculations for Gamma Emission Tomography on Nuclear Fuel within the UGET Project (2014)
- Characterization of Spent Nuclear Fuel with a Differential Die-Away Instrument (2014)
- Experimental and Analytical Plans for the Non-destructive Assay System of the Swedish Encapsulation and Repository Facilities (2014)
- Students’ approaches to learning from other students’ oral presentations (2013)
- Recent modelling studies for analysing the partial-defect detection capability of theDigital Cherenkov Viewing Device (2013)
- Improving the proliferation resistance of generation IV fast reactor fuel cycles using blankets manufactured from spent nuclear fuel. (2013)
- Improved proliferation resistance of fast reactor blankets manufactured from spent nuclear fuel (2013)
- A laboratory device for developing analysis tools and methods for gamma emission tomography of nuclear fuel (2013)
- Gamma emission tomography of nuclear fuel (2013)
- Update on the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Spent Fuel Project with Emphasis on Differential Die-Away Research (2013)
- Update on the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay Project (2013)
- Prototype Development and Field Trials under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Non-Destructive Assay Project (2013)
- Schematic design and safeguards instrumentation of a Gen IV fuel recycling facility. (2013)
- Proliferation resistance assessments during the design phase of a fuel recycling facility as a means of reducing proliferation risks (2013)
- Investigation of Possible Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Techniques for the Future Swedish Encapsulation Facility (2012)
- Partial defect verification using the DCVD (2011)
- Report on the 8th ESARDA course on nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation (2011)
- Determination of Cerenkov light absorption by fuel pond water using a calibration light source (2011)
- Modelling Cherenkov light from irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies using GEANT4 (2010)
- Modeling of the Cherenkov Light Emission from Nuclear Fuel Assemblies with Partial Defects (2010)
- Safeguards Licensing Aspects of a Future Gen IV Test Facility (2010)
- Hadron physics experiments in antiproton proton reactions with the planned PANDA detector (2007)
- Using anti-protons to measure nucleon structure: Prospects at PANDA (2007)
- Physics with the PANDA detector at FAIR (2007)

#### Reports

- Serpent modelling of pressurized heavy water CANDU reactors (2023)
- State-of-the-Art Report (2022)
- OPCW as a Model for a TPNW Structure (2022)
- Presentation at 10th Serpent User Group Meeting titled "Use of Serpent Monte-Carlo code for development of 3D full-scale models and analysis of spent fuel quivers" (2020)
- Research within technical safeguard at Uppsala university during 2016-2018 (2019)
- Forskning inom teknisk kärnämneskontroll vid Uppsala universitet under 2014–2015 (2016)
- A Viability Study of Gamma Emission Tomography for Spent Fuel Verification (2016)
- Image analysis as a tool for improved use of the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device for inspection of irradiated PWR fuel assemblies. (2014)
- Svensk elförsörjning i framtiden – en fråga med globala dimensioner (2014)
- Statistical grounds for determining the ability to detect partial defects using the Digital Cherenkov Viewing Device (DCVD) (2010)

#### Data sets

#### Other

- Spent fuel characterization research at Uppsala University (2021)
- Status of spent fuel characterization research at Uppsala University (2021)
- R&D related to final disposal at Uppsala University (2020)
- Test and Developments of Crystals for a High-Resolution Electromagnetic Calorimeter for PANDA (2004)